茶藝之美 The Beauty of Tea Art

A good cup of tea is one of life's enjoyments. In Lugu, everyone can enjoy the locally grown specialty of Dongding Oolong Tea while relaxing in this rural township. Farmhouses and tea plantations as far as the eye can see provide a leisurely setting for the local tea culture that is an ideal respite from todays modern, busy lifestyle. In our modern age, our experience of life is consumed by keeping up with the times. We forget the simple fulfillment that is available in the act of brewing tea, and neglect the aesthetic beauty that is experienced by those who give themselves the gift of theLiving Art of Tea.

The Chinese tea ceremony is based on the principles of purity, reverence, joy, and truth. Although it is an utterly simple process, it is a context that provides the opportunity for a profound communion with those who share in the activity, as well as with life as a whole. The Chinese tea ceremony has naturally evolved as a social ritual. The meaning in it lies in the hearts of those who embody it. If, in this process, the participants allow themselves to experience deep understanding and compassion, then they will be a living expression of beauty.

Dongding Oolong Tea was planted and cultivated by early Chinese settlers in this area. To the people of Lugu Township, tea is far more than a product. It represents their lifestyle and a cultural heritage to be preserved. We hope that all of Lugu's residents are tea people who support this unique culture and represent this valuable asset for the local society. The English word TEA can be used as an acronym for Tea, Environment, and Art. Is this not the most fitting description of Lugu, the home of Dongding Oolong Tea?

With the opening up of international markets to free trade, the local tea industry cannot afford to limit itself to simply producing tea. It must represent the culture that it has inherently cultivated along with this plant in order to remain vital and prosperous. The Living Art of Tea is provided as a resource for learning about tea, its production, the Chinese tea ceremony, tea competitions, tea-related activities, the health benefits of tea, and the wide variety of tea products. Hopefully, this booklet will be a helpful guide for entering the world of TEA, which is full of pleasant surprises that will enrich your life.

喝茶是人生的一大享受,但必須是留給懂得品茗樂趣的人,到鹿谷喝上一杯上選的「凍頂烏龍茶」,悠閒的漫步於農村、田舍、茶園間,陣陣茶香風情、引發思古之幽情,這是現代世人多麼難得的浪漫景象。隨著科技的進步,生活步調的緊張,我們生活的品味也就似乎永遠在追求快、狠、準的世界裡,而忘卻品茗的樂趣,忽略掉所謂美的境界當發自茶人內心真實的美感,因此藉著「茶與生活」喚起您我對茶的感動。

泡茶是一種韻事,每項器物、每個過程都是美的,至於美的程度端視茶人本身是否懂得體會,只要您心中有愛、有包容一切都會在美美的悸動之中。在日本以「和、敬、清、寂」、韓國以「清、靜、和、樂」為他們的茶道精神,而中華茶藝則以「清、敬、怡、真」為基本精神。凍頂烏龍茶隨著先民的耕耘培育,它對鹿谷鄉的意義就不止是當『茶』為飲料而已,它涵蓋鄉民珍貴的生活型態及一連串歷史的文化傳承,我們期盼所有的鹿谷鄉民都是蘊含著濃濃的茶人素養,建立起本鄉特有的凍頂茶文化,也為家鄉創造另一項高貴的資產,「茶」這個英文字是「TEA」,茶藝界朋友林獻堂君將它解析為『T』=tea(茶)、『E』=environment(環境)、『A』=art(藝術),這不就是凍頂茶的故鄉鹿谷的最佳寫照嗎?

由於國際貿易自由化的開放,茶業的經營理念就不只是種茶、製茶、賣茶的自我侷限之中,「茶」的世界必須注入文化才有生命力,而茶藝文化更是全中華民族的共同使命,因此本會僅想盡一點棉薄之力,編輯「茶與生活」一書,從茶的認識、製造、品茗、評審、茶會、茶與健康到茶葉多元化產品的介紹,可謂麻雀雖小,五臟六腑俱全。期望它是伴您茶藝入門最佳良伴,經過本書的薰陶,但願往後每一場茶會都是一次驚艷、一陣欣喜、一份珍惜,與永難忘懷的浪漫回憶。

 

中國茶史 Chinese Tea History

The Classic of Herbal Medicine (Shen Nung Pen Ts'ao Ching) is attributed to Shen Nung, one of the legendary founders of Traditional Chinese Medicine, and also known as the God of Medicine. Shen Nung is said to have tried every plant on Earth, poisoning himself 72 times in the process. One of the herbs that he is said to have recommended in his Classic of Herbal Medicine is the tea plant.

Historically, Chinese may have been drinking tea as early as the Chou Dynasty, but the tea cultivation as such began during the Han Dynasty, around two thousand years ago. Over the years, the Chinese have used many different methods for preparing and drinking tea.

During the Southern and Northern Dynasties, which followed the fall of the Han Dynasty, standard fare was stir-fried tea. The tea leaves were roasted until yellow, then crushed and sauteed in a wok with other ingredients. The mixture almost resembled a soup.

Tea brewing became an art during the Tang Dynasty (618-906). The great Lu Yu, now revered as an icon of tea loved the drink so much that he researched and wrote the Classic of Tea, in which he described the best methods of his day.

By the Tang Dynasty, tea cultivation had already spread south to Fujian Province. During the Sung Dynasty, Emperor Hui Tsung (1101-1125) wrote a long treatise describing the best ways to make powdered tea? Tea at that time was steamed to prevent oxidation and pressed into round cakes? Cakes stamped with the dragon and phoenix design gained wide fame. A sharp instrument was used to cut off a bit from the cake, powdered by rubbing it through a fine sieve, and infused in a large saucer called a chien?

During the Ming Dynasty, oxidized teas became popular, and for the first time, whole dried leaves were infused. China's first tea pots also date from the Ming Dynasty.

一、中國雲南省即是原產地。

二、神農本草經記載:神農嘗百草,一日遇七十二毒,得茶而解。此種傳說反應了先民的茶文化觀。

三、周朝:人工植茶開始,推斷約在成都附近,當時僅作為藥用。

四、漢朝:宣帝時代已有茶具買賣之紀錄。

五、魏晉南北朝:煎茶時期,其飲用方式,先烤焦黃,後搗碎煮時加調味。

六、隋唐:產茶由長江,准河擴至福建,蒸菁製茶法逐漸完成。

七、宋朝:抹茶時期,北宋仍用蒸菁法製茶,蒸好後加以壓榨,除去茶菁加入石碾研磨,蓋上龍模或鳳模,做成〝龍鳳團茶〞。

八、明朝:淹(泡)茶時期,朱元璋廢除團茶,改製散茶。

九、清朝:部份發酵茶逐漸風行。

十、民國:茶葉製茶機械化。

台灣茶業史 Taiwan Tea Industry

There are three types of tea growing in Taiwan:(a)Wild, indigenous tea(b)Imported strains(c) Hybrid strains developed from wild tea (examples include Jinxuan and Tzuiyu)

When Koxinga, a Ming Dynasty admiral who overthrew the Dutch government in Tainan, first came to Taiwan in 1661, wild tea was being cured and drunk by the locals, but nobody was cultivating tea. Settlers in Nantou County's Puli area began cultivation the first domestic tea plants in 1697. Dutch ships carried this tea all the way to Persia, in the first known export of Taiwan tea.

Between 1796 and 1820, during the Ching Dyansty, a man named Ke Tsao Shih from the famous tea region of Wu Yi Mountain in Fujian Province, brought tea plants to northern Taiwan.

In 1855, Lin Feng-chi of Lugu traveled to Fujian Province for the imperial examination. When he returned, he brought the happy news of his success and also 36 tea plants from Wu Yi. Twelve of these adapted to Lugu's Dongding Mountain conditions, which became the origin of Dongding Oolong Tea.

Between 1875 and 1908, two brothers surnamed Tsang from AnXi, Fujian brought over some cuttings of pure strain Goddess of Mercy (Tieguanyin) Tea, and planted them in Muzha, Taipei.

Various types of tea have been fashionable at different times in history, influencing the tea industry in Taiwan. In 1861, the market was for Oolong tea. By 1873, Baozhong tea came into fashion. In 1903, exports of black tea predominated, but by 1964, it was mostly green tea being exported to Japan. In 1973, the market again turned toward Oolong.

Taiwanese have a particular fondness for Oolong tea. In the early days, few Taiwanese could afford high quality tea, and Taiwan grown tea was mainly for export. Around 1970, the government began encouraging Taiwanese to drink tea, and this began a new age of tea culture on the island.

一、台灣茶樹的品種,可分為三類( 一) 本地種,( 二) 外來種( 三) 育成改良種, 野生茶樹即為本地種,種之為〝台灣山茶〞。

二、鄭成功治理台灣時代(1661 年),台灣己有製茶、飲茶的事實,但尚未發現植茶的記載。

三、1697 年台灣中南部山谷,以水沙連為中心(南投縣境),是台灣本地茶種發源地,也是最早被發現應用的地區。

四、從台灣開往波斯的荷蘭船運貨物中,有茶葉的記載。

五、1796 1820 年清嘉慶時代,柯朝氏自福建戈夷山引入茶種,為台灣北部植茶之始。

六、1855 年清咸豐年,林鳳池氏自福建,引入青烏龍種茶苗種植於凍頂山。

七、1875 1908 年清光緒年間,張氏兄弟由安溪引入,純種鐵觀音茶苗,種植於木柵。

八、台灣茶文化的輪迴軌跡:1861 年烏龍茶→ 1973 年包種茶→ 1903 年紅茶→ 1964 年綠茶→ 1973 年烏龍茶。

九、早期的茶業生產配合外銷導向的茶業市場而來。70 年代之後,政府不斷鼓勵國人喝茶,開始走向內銷並建立了現代茶文化。

 

 

中華茶藝之演進 Chinese Tea Art Through the Ages

■ Just prior to the Tang Dynasty, each region had its own way of preparing tea. There was an increasing tendency to use tea rather than liquor to accompany meals. Tea art was just beginning at this time.

■ Tang Dynasty tea drinkers used powdered tea. Tea bricks, cakes of tea or tea leaves were ground and boiled.

■ People of the Sung Dynasty ceased boiling tea powder. Instead, they poured hot water on the powder and whisked it into a frothy liquid. Then they poured more hot water over this to brew tea.

■ In the Yuan and Ming Dynasties, people began brewing wholetea leaves.. This simplified processing, and gave tea drinking wider popularity.

■ Late in the Ming Dynasty and into the Ching Dynasty, people cultivated an understanding of the qualities of tea. During this time, teapots became popular in China, with Yi Xing purple sand?pots achieving the greatest fame. This method of brewing tea promoted tea culture further. In modern times, semi-oxidized teas have gained popularity, and three standard methods of drinking tea are common. One is gai-bei? which means lidded cup? This is for individual service, with the tea brewed right in the cup. Large porcelain teapots are often used at public tea parties. The Chinese tea ceremony uses a small clay teapot and tiny cups.

Tea culture involves spiritual elevation. Related arts such as calligraphy, painting, flower arranging and music often accompany the sharing of tea. This combination enhances the cultural refinement of the tea ritual.

 

茶與生活 The Living Art of Tea

The Chinese art of tea can be a welcomed addition to modern day life.

The term tea art?refers to the cultivation of an aesthetic appreciation for the simple yet profoundly fulfilling qualities of human nature. It has its roots in Chan(Zen) Buddhism, and aspires to this naturally human embodiment of beauty that reflects the joy of awareness and the understanding of life.

Cultivating the are of tea is an experience that centers and clarifies the mind and calms the spirit. It is unregimented and intimately connected with life. The embodiment of tea art is an opportunity to enter a different frame of mind. For example: The Relationship between Tea and Music selects varied compositions music to interpret the unique characteristics of tea leaves. Children's Tea Art strives for truth, virtue and beauty among the youth. Collective Existence Tea Club focuses on the cultivation of oneself and developing self-discipline. Tea Life Club aspires toward finding inner peace and learning to drink tea with a critical appreciation of its taste and quality.

It doesn't matter if tea is being drunk alone, with a group of friends or with family. It is an elixir of life - a resource for "art that embodies life and life that approximates art".

 

 

 

鹿谷茶業文化館 Tea Culture Museum in Lugu

The Tea Culture Museum in Lugu was established in October of 1996, and covers a total floor space of about 660 square meters. On the first floor is an area for sampling the locally grown Dongding Oolong Tea and a gift shop for purchasing Lugu's specialty products. The second floor is divided into three areas: Tea Exhibition Gallery, Tea Art Classroom and a Lecture Hall. The Agriculture and Forestry Room, which offers a visual display and written explanations of forest ecology is on the third floor. There is also a collection of traditional farm tools and tea processing equipment, which are of great historical value.

The Tea Culture Museum provides comprehensive information about tea and its history. It also provides a variety of tea and tea art activities. This reflects the reverence that the Lugu Farmers Association has for its cultural heritage, and shows that it is sparing no effort to promote tea, as well as the art and culture tht continue to grow along with it.

Hours: Monday through Friday 8 a.m.-5 p.m. weekends and holidays 9 a.m.-5 p.m

Special events can be scheduled at the museum, and guided tours can be arranged with advance reservation.

Tea Gift Shop 1F : On the first floor of the Lugu Farmers Association Visitor Center, below the Tea Culture Museum, you can buy fine quality tea, which is professionally packaged according to the grade given by an expert panel of judges. Many other tea-related products are also available.

Tea Art Room 2F : The Tea Art Room is paneled in bamboo and decorated with

bamboo furniture, framed Chinese calligraphy and Chinese landscape paintings. . As the tea is served, itsatmosphere of art and culture brings you into a whole new world.

Activities are often held in this room, such as Chinese tea ceremony classes for children and adults, lectures and musical performances are held frequently. It is a relaxing place to learn and make new friends.

Agriculture and Forestry Room 3F : Photographs introduce the animals and plants of Lugu, as well as different types of bamboo, another important agricultural product of this area. Explanations are also provided on the local butterflies, birds and snakes, to promote ecological awareness and conservation.

Displays of old farm implements and a life-size model of a traditional Taiwanese farmhouse are meant to give visitors an idea of early rural life in Taiwan.

Lecture Hall : This room, with seating for 120 people, is suitable for group lectures or speeches. Visitors can enjoy a 30-minute slide presentation on Dongding Oolong Tea. We hope that many people will use this facility to promote tea art - an essential aspect of Chinese culture - in daily life. Good tea should be shared with good friends. We welcome one and all to share in this treasure.

Exhibition Gallery : In this room, five topics are introduced: Tea History, Recognizing Tea Varietals, Tea Processing, Tea and Health, and Tea and Life. As you enter, admire a display of modern and antique teaware. Chinese paintings and traditional Chinese furniture recall Taiwan's ancient culture.

Tea History : Traditional Chinese daily life depended on seven important commodities: wood, rice, oil, salt, soy sauce, vinegar and tea. From the time of Shen Nung, a legendary founder of Traditional Chinese Medicine, thousands of years ago, Chinese people have been drinking tea. This display introduces Chinese tea history and the origins of Taiwan tea-especially the tea of Lugu. After viewing this display, you will better understand the evolution of Chinese tea art and teaware.

Understanding Tea : There are three basic types of tea: tea: Fully oxidized tea, partially oxidized tea and unoxidized tea. In addition, there is spring tea, summer tea, autumn tea and winter tea. This display offers valuable information for classifying and choosing tea.

Tea and Health : Tea has many health-promoting ingredients. In general, it has a refreshing and energizing effect. Tea is also helpful to the digestion, in reducing cholesterol, controlling hypertension, preventing halitosis, and even in maintaining a youthful complexion. Tea has a broad range of health promoting qualities, and is even used to flavor foods.

Tea and Life : Drinking tea promotes relaxation and peace of-mind, and is an excellent way to connect with friends. This display introduces a variety of tea-related activities, such as tea and music programs. Various products made from tea leaves are introduced, as well as the culinary uses of powdered tea.

Tea Processing : Producing quality tea is an arduous process that requires great skill and care. This process includes oxidation the leaves, tumble-heating, rolling, drying and removing the stems. Sometimes the tea is roasted. Then, it is graded and packaged. This display shows traditional and modern methods of processing tea, and gives visitors an idea of the progress made from early times to the present day.

Lugu : Lugu, the home of Dongding Oolong Tea, is famous for its daily sun and fog and its scenic mountains. Lugu is on the way to Xitou Forest Recreation Area. You will notice a thee-story building in the traditional Chinese style. From the road, you will easily recognize its grand roof and decor. This is the Lugu Farmers Association Visitor Center. Inside is the ever-present fragrant smell of tea. This is an excellent starting place in your exploration of Lugu's world of tea . Enjoy some locally produced tea, visit the Tea Culture Museum and relax in the outdoor teahouse with live music and a beautiful view.

 

 

茶之美 The Beauty of Tea

Tea is a gift of nature that was once hoarded by the ruling class. Today, tea has become an essential part of life for people of all classes. Tea culture is an expression of harmony with nature. From the time of Shen Nung, the legendary founder of Traditional Chinese Medicine who is said to have discovered the plant, tea and life have become inseparable. In Lugu, the first thing that people say when meeting friends and neighbors is "come have some tea">.

The beauty of tea manifests itself in many ways: In the endless rows of tea plants that wrap around the terraced mountain slopes; in the amber luster of each cup of tea that is poured; in the simple, yet profound understanding that is shared by those who embody its culture. For centuries, tea has been recognized as both a medicine and a resource of art and culture.

"The Living Art of Tea" is comprised of more than a dozen chapters that are meant to help readers identify tea leaves; learn how to properly brew tea; and understand its health benefits. Its purpose is to promote tea culture and to provide accurate information about types of tea and its production.

 

 

 

凍頂茶的由來與特徵

The Origins and Characteristics of Dongding Oolong Tea

凍頂茶的由來與特徵The Origins and Characteristics of Dongding Oolong

According to the oral history of the area, Lin Feng-chi of Lugu Township went to Fujian Province of Mainland China in 1855 to join the examination for government officials. Upon his return to Lugu, he brought with him 36 Oolong tea plant seedlings from China's Wuyi Mountain. Lin San-hsien successfully cultivated 12 of the seedlings on Lugu's Dongding Mountain and eventually enough of the plants reproduced to fill a plantation. This was the beginning of Dongding Oolong Tea.

Dongding Oolong Tea is produced on and around the foothills of Dongding and Dalun Mountain in Nantou County's Lugu Township, on slopes that are at 600 to 1,800 meters in elevation. The cool climate, adequate rainfall, fertile soil, moderate sunshine and high frequency of cloud and mist make Lugu an excellent location for growing quality tea. This township's Dongding Oolong Tea possesses a delicate fragrance with a smooth and mellow flavor, and has achieved considerable fame both in Taiwan and abroad.

二、凍頂茶的特徵The characteristics of Dongding Oolong Tea

 Dongding Oolong Tea is categorized as a semi-oxidized tea, even though the tea leaves only undergo 20 to 30% oxidation. Its processed leaves are dark green in color rolled neatly in a semi-spherical shape. The brewed tea is a transparant bright golden color. The aroma is heady and complex. It is smooth and robust in flavor, with a clean finish and a lingering sweet aftertaste. The composition of Dongding Oolong tea is unique. It's mature and full-bodied characteristics are the result of the carefully crafted oxidation and extensive low-temperature roasting process involved.

 

 

凍頂茶製造流程Dongding Oolong Tea Processing Steps

Solar oxidation

Exposing harvested tea leaves to sunshine accelerates evaporation of moisture , and acts as a catalyst for oxidation by naturally occurring enzymes in the tea plant.

Indoor oxidation and shaking

The leaves are spread on bamboo trays and shaken up intermittently for uniform exposure and to further deplete moisture during the indoor oxidation stage, which lasts for 6 to 12 hours.. During this step, complex and subtle changes in the natural chemical composition of the leaves create the characteristic aroma and flavor of Dongding Oolong Tea.

 

Tumble-heating

High temperatures are used to halt enzyme activity, including oxidation and biochemical reactions. This step stabilizes the composition of the tea (in terms of aroma and taste, etc.). During tumble-heating, much of the moisture is lost from the tea leaves, and their supple nature becomes evident as they enter the next step in their processing--rolling.

 

Primary rolling

During the rolling process, friction causes the breakdown of the tea leaf structure, while ensuring that the consistency of the leaf remains in tact. Mass rolling may be carried out twice to reduce the volume of the finished tea, making it easier to ship, store and enter the marketplace.

 

Primary drying

 The rolled leaves are placed into a dryer to carry out primary drying, during which the water content evaporates from the surface of the leaves. The result is that the leaves retain their suppleness and elasticity but are not sticky or brittle. This step occurs about 12 hours after leaves have been harvested -- in the middle of the night! The leaves are left to settle until the next morning when mass rolling is carried out.

 

Hot mass rolling

The leaves become very supple when exposed to high temperature. They are then placed inside a cloth bag, forming a large ball that is rolled by a special machine or by hand. Through such methods, moisture slowly dissipates from the leaves and they gradually become more tightly curled. This step produces the characteristic appearance and enhances the characteristic aroma of Dongding Oolong Tea.

 

Advanced drying

Hot air is used for drying, to halt any remaining enzyme activity after tumble-heating. This inhibits further oxidization and further stabilizes tea quality.

 

Stem removal

The tea leaves are examined and the stems are removed to reduce volume and increase its quality.

 

Final drying and roasting

Heat control is used during the roasting process to improve tea quality (aroma--to eliminate rogue odors and to add a roasted aroma; taste--to eliminate Malliard reaction, carmelization, oxidative and shrinkage effects; tea color--retain clarity and prevent changes in color). Roasting stabilizes the aroma, smoothness, fragrant aftertaste and lingering aroma that are the renowned qualities of Dongding Oolong Tea.

Packaging

Finally, the tea leaves are ready for packaging and to be sold on the market.

 

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